July 16, 2013 by Ann
Quote:More about mammoths : The Ice Ages
Where did all of the large mammals go?
About 10,000-12,000 years ago most of the large mammals from the Ice Ages went extinct. Paleontologists are trying to understand why this happened. There are two possible ideas.
The first one has to do with climate. About 12,800 to 11,500 years ago, it became very cold, changing the environment in which these large mammals lived. Paleontologists think the cool weather may have reduced the amount of food available for these large animals.
The second idea has to do with humans. Humans arrived in North America about 13,000 years ago. They were hunters and killed large mammals for food.
How do we know?
There are several fossil sites in the southwest US where mammoth bones containing spear heads have been found. Paleontologists think that maybe humans hunted the large mammals to extinction.
What’s the answer?
There is a lot of debate among paleontologists about whether climate or humans led to the extinction of these large mammals. Today, however, most paleontologists think it is a combination of both reasons. The cool weather may have diminished their food resources making it easier for humans to hunt them to extinction
Last humans on Earth survived Ice Age by sheltering in ‘Garden of Eden’ claim scientists…
survived–Ice–Age-sheltering…Jul 27, 2010
The strip of land on Africa’s southern coast became the only place that remained habitable during the devastating ice age which wiped out …
The caves along the South African coast where early man may have sheltered and survived the ice age
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1297765/Last-humans-Earth-survived-Ice-Age-sheltering-Garden-Eden-claim-scientists.html#ixzz2YzD4HWNY
Needs List: ?Rescue Teams Snow Suits / Arctic Sleeping Bags / Space Blankets to cover over the top of sleeping bags to seal in your body heat. Yes,I found out this winter that space blankets take the place of heating pads and electric blankets used in this manner./ Melt ice and snow for water and use your Clearly Filter ?
What would you use as fuel/power? Small wind power set up? Solar Panels? / But wait …… this is not a Big Weather Storm with grid off line that we are talking about here! This is a new plan of survival!
How to prepare for the coming Ice Age? – Cassiopaeacassiopaea.org › …
Jul 1, 2010 – 15 posts – 10 authorsAs we read: the coming ice age could be just one winter away, and I was wondering if you guys are preparing for this and how you prepare …
Jun 14, 2011 – 15 posts – 1 author I think it’s about time we discuss how best to survive a potential ice age scenario. We should all be aware that we may be on the brink of it.
How to Survive the Next Ice Age « Phil for Humanity No matter how well prepared any person or group can be for the next ice age, they will eventually run out of supplies and need to start living off the land again.
Now cold places depend on shipping in from warmer areas. So that is not going to work in an ice age! As I was going to say copy Siberia, Alaska, Northern Canada:)
” There are other events just around the corner that many cultures were warned about but nobody paid attention as usual. There are no green solutions to Earth Changes. You can’t buy your way out of it with Carbon Credits or electric cars either. Windmills and solar panels will simply be blown off the face of the Earth as more 200+ mph winds begin to take its toll on humanity. We will also learn first hand how wooly mammoths were quick frozen in mid stride while chewing their food. Besides, if you paid attention to visions and prophecy you would also know electricity will cease to function since the physics behind it all will soon change. This is a cycle Ma Earth was on long before dinosaurs roamed the Earth and Al Gore first tried to capitalize on naturally occurring events. Economics and greed will give way to survival as clean drinking water becomes more valuable then Blackberries and fancy gold trinkets. A gram of salt will be almost priceless. Paper money will not buy a slice of bread but find a home in latrines around the world.”
Caves around here are being blocked off with metal bars by the New World Odor gang! They have taken over the under ground just for themselves!
What is the New World Odor Elite going to do for power under ground? Use all that gas and oil they are storing up for themselves? Or will Mother Earth let them? A spark could set it off like a bomb! OR She can shift and crush them under there! Or as Tribes speak of the Hot Red Blood Lava filling all the under ground caves?
This will not be a Storm Grid shut down where we can use these as back up!” There are other events just around the corner that many cultures were warned about but nobody paid attention as usual. There are no green solutions to Earth Changes. You can’t buy your way out of it with Carbon Credits or electric cars either. Windmills and solar panels will simply be blown off the face of the Earth as more 200+ mph winds begin to take its toll on humanity. We will also learn first hand how wooly mammoths were quick frozen in mid stride while chewing their food. Besides, if you paid attention to visions and prophecy you would also know electricity will cease to function since the physics behind it all will soon change. This is a cycle Ma Earth was on long before dinosaurs roamed the Earth and Al Gore first tried to capitalize on naturally occurring events. Economics and greed will give way to survival as clean drinking water becomes more valuable then Blackberries and fancy gold trinkets. A gram of salt will be almost priceless. Paper money will not buy a slice of bread but find a home in latrines around the world.”
You can beat the Arctic if you…
Get Plenty of rest.
Avoid Tight Clothing.
Eat plenty of fat.
Keep dry and warm.
If landing a plane? One – Drain several gallons of lubricating oil from the engine oil sump In the far north this oil will be your immediate source of fuel for heating and cooking. If you wait too long after landing, the oil will become so stiff that it will be impossible to drain it. A cowl section can be used as a receptacle. Drain a similar quantity of gasoline, but don’t spill any on you hands if in winter time – it will freeze them.
Drain residual oil and gasoline – they will be your main source of fuel if you have been forced down in ice country.
TWO – If conditions allow you to make a wheels-down landing and your plane is still flyable, drain all the lubricating oil ( it will be simpler to heat the congealed oil than to heat the engine if a take-off is attempted) and stake your plane to protect it from the wind. In snow country, mooring anchors can be made by burying branches, sacks, boxes, or cans in the snow and pouring water over the spot. On ice, two holes can be dug a foot apart and a hole chopped through the intervening bridge to take the mooring line. Mooring lines should be tight enough to prevent the plane from rocking.
If your plane is still flyable after landing, protect the tires with evergreen boughs. They will freeze to the ice if unprotected.
Some measure should also be taken to prevent your landing-wheel tires from freezing to the ice. A padding of boughs, canvas, or straw under the wheels will do the job. SNOW GOGGLES:
Improvised snow goggles can be made by cutting slits in wood. As soon as possible after landing check your equipment. Snow goggles should be worn at all times. The snow goggles in your kit will protect your eyes against the glare. If they have been lost or broken, you can fashion a pair of Eskimo-type snow shields from a scrap of wood about six inches long and an inch wide by burning holes or slits through it at eye width. The goggles can be held on with a short length of shroud line cut from your parachute. Don’t make your snow goggles out of metal. Metal will freeze to your skin.
As an additional precaution against snow Blindness, blacken your cheeks and the bridge of your nose with soot, charcoal, or dirty engine oil. The blackening will help cut down reflection.
SNOW BLINDNESS CAN OCCUR DURING A BRIGHT OVERCAST AS QUICKLY AS DURING SUNNY WEATHER.
(Page 28 illustration)
If your shoes are tight, improvise boots from canvas and cord.
Double socks filled with cushion stuffing will protect your feet.
Several layers of light clothing are much warmer than a single layer of heavy clothing. Inner clothing should be fluffy and porous; outer clothing should be windproof.
AVOID TIGHT CLOTHING AND TIGHT SHOES:
In winter your cloths should be loose enough to allow a free circulation of air so that your perspiration can evaporate. If it doesn’t, it will form frost inside your cloths and you will be well on your way to freezing and frostbite. keep your clothes and your socks dry.
If you must do heavy work, loosen your clothing and remove some of it. Avoid becoming overheated – an excess of perspiration will mean wet clothing and drying them in sub-zero weather is difficult. If you get we, change to dry clothing as soon as possible. Frost can be removed by turning the garment inside out and beating it with a stick.
To dry clothes with the heat from a fire build a rack to hold them. (See page 28)
Don’t wear tight shoes. If the shoes you have are not big enough to allow you to wear at least two pairs of heavy socks don’t use them. Instead, improvise a pair by wrapping your feet in strips of canvas cut from your wing covers, motor covers, or any other heavy material that may be aboard your plane.
If rescue fails, your feet will be your only means of travel, so take care of them.
Keep your hands and feet warm and dry and you will be fairly comfortable no matter what the temperature. An improvised warm double sock can be made by putting one pair of wool socks inside another and stuffing a layer of stuffing from a preserver cushion in the space between the two. If you have them, a good combination for keeping your hands warm consists of heavy woolen inner mitts with canvas or other windproof outer mitts.
NEVER TOUCH COLD METAL WITH YOUR BARE HANDS. IT WILL FREEZE TO THE SKIN. If you do touch metal by accident, thaw the metal loose from the skin. Don’t pull it.
Protect your face with a loose cloth fastened to your parka. Tight-fitting face masks made of canvas or other cloth should be avoided. They are more of a hazard than a protection. Instead, fasten a piece of cloth across the front of your parka hood just below the level of your eyes and let it hang down loosely below your collar. This type of face shield not only protects your face, but allows your moist breath to escape. DON’T GROW A BEARD if you can help it – moisture from your breath will freeze on your beard and form an ice-mask that may freeze your face.
SAVE YOUR PARACHUTE – the canopy makes up into a good tent.
In tree country, a lean-to can be made from evergreen boughs. Build your fire on a platform of logs or metal salvaged from your plane. The platform will prevent the water from melting ice or snow from wetting the fire wood and putting out the fire.
A tin-can stove. A large can makes a good stove, cut stoke-hole and flue. A tin-can heater that burns oil. wire tripod supports cord wick.
Shelter can be provided in a number of ways. Hard-packed snow drifts can be hollowed out to provide protection for two or three men.
If a semi-permanent type of camp is necessary, build an ice house. The ice or snow can be cut into blocks with a machete or snow knife of metal salvaged from your plane.
A good tent can be made out of your parachute – with the shrouds serving as stake lines. When you cut your chute free of its harness, save the harness. It can be used as an improvised pack. Pitch your tent in a sheltered spot, but not in the lee of a snow bank where it stands any chance of being buried by drifting snow. If no natural windbreak is available, construct one out of snow and ice blocks. The opening to your tent should be away from the direction of the prevailing wind and the floor should be covered with boughs, canvas wing covers, engine covers, or seat cushions.
In tree country, lean-to shelter can be constructed by arranging a framework of poles and covering it on three sides with a thick layer of evergreen boughs. Here again, the floor of your shelter should be lined with boughs, canvas, or seat cushions. If you are using a sleeping bag, air and dry it at least once every three days.
Wear as few clothes as possible in your sleeping bag. Excessive body moisture will condense and form frost inside the bag. When this happens, turn the bag inside out and beat it with a stick. A damp or frosted sleeping bag is dangerous, keep it dry. Don’t put your sleeping bag directly on the snow or ice. Protect it with a layer of evergreen boughs if they are available or with a wing cover, seat cushions, or engine covers.
In tree country, wood for heating and cooking fires is no problem. Various types of fires and fireplaces can be used. Shield your fire from the wind and in snow country, don’t build it directly on the ice or snow. The melting snow will wet the wood and reduce the heat of your fire.
Build it on a crib of wood or metal as shown on the next page.
If no wood is available, your main source of fuel will be the oil and gasoline drained from your engine. This can be burned in several ways for cooking and heating. If the oil is congealed, mold it into small balls. Place one of the pieces in the bottom of an open-top can or any other receptacle that has a draft hole cut near the bottom.
Cover it with the kapok or other stuffing salvaged from your seat cushions, pour a very small amount of gasoline over top, and light it. More fuel can be added as desired.
If the oil is liquid, mix a little gasoline with it, pour the mixture into the can over an improvised wick consisting of four or five strands of twisted cord or rag supported on a bent-wire tripod frame, and light the wick.
A small flame inside a closed heater of this type will provide enough heat for quick cooking. The same type of tin-can heater can be used as an economical burner for small quantities of wood.A heater for use inside your improvised tent or lean-to need be nothing more than a candle burning inside a small tin can.
Or, if you have no candles, a miniature of the cooking burner can be made.
In some Arctic regions surface coal is available as fuel. It can be found in some river valleys. On sea beaches, coal often can be found in the windrows. This coal has been scooped from the sea bottom and piled on the beach by the ice. Starting a fire with this coal may be difficult, particularly if no wood for kindling is available.
Animal fats and hides also provide a source of fuel. A small chunk of caribou suet, for instance, placed on a small piece of wood and lighted, is sufficient to cook enough meat to last three men one day. The hide of a musk ox or a grizzly bear will cook three or four pots of food. Seal blubber also makes an exellent fuel.
WARNING: DANGEROUS CARBON MONOXIDE FUMES ARE PRODUCED WHEN ANY KIND OF FIRE OR HEATER IS BURNED IN AN UNVENTILATED SHELTER. BE SURE TO PROVIDE VENTILATION.
Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the greatest dangers in the Arctic. Carbon monoxide gas is colorless and odorless , so your only means of combating it is through adequate ventilation, particularly at night.
A snow drift may cover your tent and reduce the normal ventilation through the fabric of your tent, so provide some other means of ventilation while your stove or fire is burning. Keep a burner or fire going only long enough to cook your food, then put it out.
Eat as much fat as you can. Fat is a heat-producing food and very important to your health in the Arctic. In the winter months, animals and fish will be about your only source of natural food. The caribou provides the best meat of the land animals and the seal provides the best of the sea animals.
In the Arctic, boiling is the easiest and the best method of cooking. Boiling not only conserves fuel, but preserves the essential elements of the food. In summer and autumn, fresh water will be available excepting on the ice cap or on the sea. In the winter, ice or snow can be used.
To cook meat in water from ice or snow, melt small bits until you have an inch or two of water, fill the pot about three-quarters full with the ice or snow, cut the meat into inch chunks and place it on top of the ice, and then put the pot on the fire. As the ice melts, the meat will sink and as the water is gradually warmed the meat will thaw. After the water has boiled for two or three minutes remove the pot from the fire and place it on evergreen boughs or a piece of wood to cool to eating temperature. When the meat has been eaten, the liquid remaining should be drunk. NEVER OVERCOOK MEAT, overcooking destroys the vitamins. For a variation in diet, chunks of meat can be broiled over the fire in any one of a number of ways, but the bulk of your fish and meat should be boiled.
PLENTY OF FOOD AND REST is the secret of Arctic travel, particularly in the winter. Don’t rush, cook at least one hot meal a day, and be sure to get adequate sleep. You can survive many days without food if you will relax and avoid exhaustion, DON’T WORRY ABOUT FREEZING TO DEATH WHILE YOU SLEEP. Unless you are exhausted you will wake up before you freeze.
United States Army Air force
Arctic Survival Manual
World War II
Without burning wood, how do people in the Arctic keep warm or light their homes in the winter?
While there is a variety of plant life in the arctic tundra as well as small amounts of driftwood, wood was not readily available to northern peoples. Instead of burning wood for heat or light at night, people in the north used the oil from the fat of seals or other marine mammals as their primary source of fuel for lamps and fires.
What do people eat in the Arctic?
Even though the environment in the Arctic prevents people from growing their own food, people still have a varied diet. Peoples in arctic regions have traditionally eaten a variety of fish, seals, whales and caribou, as well as the numerous types of plants and delicious berries that grow naturally in the Arctic. In addition, Eurasian Arctic peoples adopted reindeer domestication as their main subsistence pattern about 2,000 years ago.
What kinds of shoes do people wear in the Arctic?
Because of the very cold conditions, it’s important to have extremely warm shoes. Traditionally people wore skin boots, which are very warm and adaptable. The warmest boots are made from caribou or reindeer skin, although people on the coast utilized polar bear or seal skin because they are naturally waterproof. Often fish skin was used for the soles, as the scales provide good traction on the ice and snow.
Inuit clothing – John Tyman Photo Journals
www.johntyman.com/arctic/inuit201.htmlINUIT ~ People of the Arctic Unit III: INUIT: CLOTHING AND SHELTER Back to Main Navigation Page … sometimes husky fur (which is similarly thick and warm).
www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/…/clothing_in_antar…Clothing for cold conditions, how to keep warm in extreme cold temeratures. … Damp clothing in the cold can reduce the insulation significantly, so it is important …