Toast dried chiles in a small dry skillet over medium heat, stirring often, until slightly puffed, about 1 minute. Let cool. Pulse jalapeños, fish sauce, and salt in a food processor. Pulse until finely chopped. Add garlic, ginger, and wine; crumble in toasted chiles and process until smooth. DO AHEAD: Can be made 2 weeks ahead. Cover and chill.
Set a fine-mesh sieve over a heatproof bowl. Heat oil in a wok or a large deep heavy skillet over high heat. Add potatoes and fry, stirring and shaking wok often, until light golden brown, 7–9 minutes (5 minutes, if using a skillet). Strain oil through prepared sieve. Transfer potatoes to a paper towel-lined plate.
Return strained oil to wok; heat over medium heat. Add peppercorns and stir-fry until fragrant, about 10 seconds. Add dried chiles and sauté for 10 seconds. Add pastrami, 3/4 cup peanuts, celery, serrano chiles, bean paste, broth, sugar, and potatoes; stir constantly until well combined and pastrami is glazed with sauce, about 3 minutes. Stir in 1 Tbsp. salted chili paste and 1 Tbsp. soy sauce. Season with more chili paste and soy sauce, if desired, and transfer to a serving dish. Garnish with remaining 1/4 cup peanuts and chives. Drizzle with chili oil, if desired.
Recipe by Danny Bowien of Mission Chinese Food in San Francisco CA